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Vietnamese Boats Set on Fire for Illegal Fishing in Palau Territory

Vietnamese Boats Set on Fire for Illegal Fishing in Palau Territory

Until now, when Palau officials caught poachers, they would only remove their tools before sending the ships back on their way

‘We will not tolerate any more these pirates who come and steal our resources,’ said Palau’s president, Tommy Remengesau Jr.

To protest the rise of illegal fishing, the Pacific island of Palau set fire to four Vietnamese fishing boats that were caught poaching sea cucumbers, along with other marine life, from its waters.

“We wanted to send a very strong message,” Palau's president, Tommy Remengesau Jr., told The Associated Press. “We will not tolerate any more these pirates who come and steal our resources.”

The destruction of these boats, which were burned Friday morning, June 12, is meant to send a message of warning to other nations who do not respect Palau’s calls for the preservation of its marine life.

In the past, Palau officials have caught at least 15 boats loaded with lobsters, reef fish, sea cucumbers, sharks, and shark fins.

All the boats were of Vietnamese origin, and were stripped of their fishing gear before being sent back to Vietnam. Now, President Remengesau says that it has become clear that merely removing the fishermen’s tools is not enough.

“I think it's necessary to burn the boats,” Remengesau told the AP.

Recently, Indonesia took even more serious steps to warn foreign nations against poaching from the country’s waters, blowing up and sinking a number of ships from Vietnam, Thailand, China, Malaysia, and the Philippines.

Palau’s long-term goal is to turn its waters into a national marine sanctuary, permitting the use of specific areas of water only by domestic fishermen and tourists.


Vietnamese Boats Set on Fire for Illegal Fishing in Palau Territory - Recipes

This week saw a significant milestone for fishing in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. More than 65 years since the formation of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) – established to manage fishing efforts between 21 countries – skipjack and yellowfin tuna purse seine fishing by the major Mexican fishers in this region has been certified as sustainable to the MSC Standard.

Vessels fishing in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) were highly criticized due to poor fishing practices in the 1970s and 1980s. Vessels owned by the Pacific Alliance for Sustainable Tuna (PAST) started fishing in the 1990s, and have spent the last 30 years investing in science, research, management and international agreements which will maintain the resilience and productivity of the oceans they fish in for future generations.

This certification has required robust, independent and extensive analysis of the fishery’s impact on the environment, including fish stocks and ecosystems. It also required evidence of effective management systems.


Contents

Wake Island derives its name from sea captain Samuel Wake, who rediscovered the atoll in 1796 while in command of the Prince William Henry. The name is sometimes attributed to Captain William Wake, who also is reported to have discovered the atoll from the Prince William Henry in 1792. [2]

Name acres hectares
Wake Islet 1,367.04 553.22
Wilkes Islet 197.44 79.90
Peale Islet 256.83 103.94
Wake Island (total of all three islets) 1,821.31 737.06
Lagoon (water) 1,480.00 600.00
Sand Flat 910.00 370.00

Wake is located two-thirds of the way from Honolulu to Guam. Honolulu is 2,300 statute miles (3,700 km) to the east, and Guam 1,510 statute miles (2,430 km) to the west. Midway is 1,170 statute miles (1,880 kilometers) to the northeast. The closest land is the uninhabited Bokak Atoll 348 mi (560 km) in the Marshall Islands, to the southeast. The atoll is to the west of the International Date Line and in the Wake Island Time Zone (UTC+12), the easternmost time zone in the United States, and almost one day ahead of the 50 states.

Although Wake is officially called an island in the singular form, it is actually an atoll composed of three islets and a reef surrounding a central lagoon: [3]

Climate Edit

Wake Island lies in the tropical zone, but is subject to periodic temperate storms during the winter. Sea surface temperatures are warm all year long, reaching above 80 °F (27 °C) in summer and autumn. Typhoons occasionally pass over the island. [4]

Climate data for Wake Island, US
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 82.2
(27.9)
82.0
(27.8)
83.1
(28.4)
83.8
(28.8)
85.6
(29.8)
87.6
(30.9)
88.2
(31.2)
88.2
(31.2)
88.2
(31.2)
87.4
(30.8)
85.5
(29.7)
83.5
(28.6)
85.4
(29.7)
Daily mean °F (°C) 77.5
(25.3)
77.4
(25.2)
78.1
(25.6)
78.6
(25.9)
80.4
(26.9)
82.2
(27.9)
82.8
(28.2)
82.8
(28.2)
82.9
(28.3)
82.2
(27.9)
80.8
(27.1)
79.0
(26.1)
80.4
(26.9)
Average low °F (°C) 72.7
(22.6)
72.1
(22.3)
72.9
(22.7)
73.4
(23.0)
75.0
(23.9)
76.6
(24.8)
77.4
(25.2)
77.4
(25.2)
77.7
(25.4)
77.2
(25.1)
76.1
(24.5)
74.1
(23.4)
75.2
(24.0)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.16
(29)
1.60
(41)
2.23
(57)
2.51
(64)
1.74
(44)
2.29
(58)
4.02
(102)
6.16
(156)
5.07
(129)
4.33
(110)
2.79
(71)
1.78
(45)
35.68
(906)
Source: Climatemps.com [5]

Typhoons Edit

On October 19, 1940, an unnamed typhoon hit Wake Island with 120 knots (220 km/h) winds. This was the first recorded typhoon to hit the island since observations began in 1935. [6]

Super Typhoon Olive impacted Wake on September 16, 1952 with wind speeds reaching 150 knots (280 km/h). Olive caused major flooding, destroyed approximately 85% of its structures and caused $1.6 million in damage. [7]

On September 16, 1967, at 10:40 pm local time, the eye of Super Typhoon Sarah passed over the island. Sustained winds in the eyewall were 130 knots (240 km/h), from the north before the eye and from the south afterward. All non-reinforced structures were demolished. There were no serious injuries, and the majority of the civilian population was evacuated after the storm. [8]

On August 28, 2006, the United States Air Force evacuated all 188 residents and suspended all operations as category 5 Super Typhoon Ioke headed toward Wake. By August 31 the southwestern eyewall of the storm passed over the island, with winds well over 185 miles per hour (298 km/h), [9] driving a 20 ft (6 m) storm surge and waves directly into the lagoon inflicting major damage. [10] A U.S. Air Force assessment and repair team returned to the island in September 2006 and restored limited function to the airfield and facilities leading ultimately to a full return to normal operations.

The atoll, with its surrounding marine waters, has been recognised as an Important Bird Area (IBA) by BirdLife International for its sooty tern colony, with some 200,000 individual birds estimated in 1999. [11]

Prehistory Edit

The presence of the Polynesian rat on the island suggests that Wake was visited by Polynesian or Micronesian voyagers at an early date. [12]

Early European contact Edit

Wake Island was first encountered by Europeans on October 2, 1568, by Spanish explorer and navigator Álvaro de Mendaña de Neyra. In 1567, Mendaña and his crew had set off on two ships, Los Reyes and Todos los Santos, from Callao, Peru, on an expedition to search for a gold-rich land in the South Pacific as mentioned in Inca tradition. After visiting Tuvalu and the Solomon Islands, the expedition headed north and came upon Wake Island, "a low barren island, judged to be eight leagues in circumference". Since the date – October 2, 1568 – was the eve of the feast of Saint Francis of Assisi, the captain named the island "San Francisco". The ships were in need of water and the crew was suffering from scurvy, but after circling the island it was determined that Wake was waterless and had "not a cocoanut nor a pandanus" and, in fact, "there was nothing on it but sea-birds, and sandy places covered with bushes." [13] [14] [15]

In 1796, Captain Samuel Wake of the merchantman Prince William Henry also came upon Wake Island, naming the atoll for himself. Soon thereafter the 80-ton fur trading merchant brig Halcyon arrived at Wake and Master Charles William Barkley, unaware of Captain Wake's earlier and other prior European contact, named the atoll Halcyon Island in honor of his ship. [16]

United States Exploring Expedition Edit

On December 20, 1841, the United States Exploring Expedition, commanded by US Navy Lieutenant Charles Wilkes, arrived at Wake on USS Vincennes and sent several boats to survey the island. Wilkes described the atoll as "a low coral one, of triangular form and eight feet above the surface. It has a large lagoon in the centre, which was well filled with fish of a variety of species among these were some fine mullet." He also noted that Wake had no fresh water but was covered with shrubs, "the most abundant of which was the tournefortia." The expedition's naturalist, Titian Peale, noted that "the only remarkable part in the formation of this island is the enormous blocks of coral which have been thrown up by the violence of the sea." Peale collected an egg from a short-tailed albatross and added other specimens, including a Polynesian rat, to the natural history collections of the expedition. Wilkes also reported that "from appearances, the island must be at times submerged, or the sea makes a complete breach over it." [18]

The wreck and salvage of Libelle Edit

Wake Island first received international attention with the wreck of the barque Libelle. On the night of March 4, 1866, the 650-ton iron-hulled Libelle, of Bremen, struck the eastern reef of Wake Island during a gale. Commanded by Captain Anton Tobias, the ship was en route from San Francisco to Hong Kong with a cargo of mercury (quicksilver). After three days of searching and digging on the island for water, the crew was able to recover a 200 US gallons (760 l) water tank from the wrecked ship. Valuable cargo was also recovered and buried on the island, including some of the 1,000 flasks of mercury, as well as coins and precious stones valued at $93,943. After three weeks with a dwindling water supply and no sign of rescue, the passengers and crew decided to leave Wake and attempt to sail to Guam (the center of the then Spanish colony of the Mariana Islands) on the two remaining boats from Libelle. The 22 passengers and some of the crew sailed in the 22-foot (7 m) longboat under the command of First Mate Rudolf Kausch and the remainder of the crew sailed with Captain Tobias in the 20-foot (6 m) gig. On April 8, 1866, after 13 days of frequent squalls, short rations and tropical sun, the longboat reached Guam. Unfortunately, the gig, commanded by the captain, was lost at sea. [19] [20]

The Spanish governor of the Mariana Islands, Francisco Moscoso y Lara, welcomed and provided aid to the Libelle shipwreck survivors on Guam. He also ordered the schooner Ana, owned and commanded by his son-in-law George H. Johnston, to be dispatched with first mate Kausch to search for the missing gig and then sail on to Wake Island to confirm the shipwreck story and recover the buried treasure. Ana departed Guam on April 10 and, after two days at Wake Island, found and salvaged the buried coins and precious stones as well as a small quantity of the quicksilver. [21] [22]

The wreck of Dashing Wave Edit

On July 29, 1870, the British tea clipper Dashing Wave, under the command of Captain Henry Vandervord, sailed out of Foochoo, China, en route to Sydney. On August 31 "the weather was very thick, and it was blowing a heavy gale from the eastward, attended with violent squalls, and a tremendous sea." At 10:30 p.m. breakers were seen and the ship struck the reef at Wake Island. Overnight the vessel began to break up and at 10:00 a.m. the crew succeeded in launching the longboat over the leeward side. In the chaos of the evacuation, the captain secured a chart and nautical instruments, but no compass. The crew loaded a case of wine, some bread and two buckets, but no drinking water. Since Wake Island appeared to have neither food nor water, the captain and his 12-man crew quickly departed, crafting a makeshift sail by attaching a blanket to an oar. With no water, each man was allotted a glass of wine per day until a heavy rain shower came on the sixth day. After 31 days of hardship, drifting westward in the longboat, they reached Kosrae (Strong's Island) in the Caroline Islands. Captain Vandervord attributed the loss of Dashing Wave to the erroneous manner in which Wake Island "is laid down in the charts. It is very low, and not easily seen even on a clear night." [19] [23]

American possession Edit

With the annexation of Hawaii in 1898 and the acquisition of Guam and the Philippines resulting from the conclusion of the Spanish–American War that same year, the United States began to consider unclaimed and uninhabited Wake Island, located approximately halfway between Honolulu and Manila, as a good location for a telegraph cable station and coaling station for refueling warships of the rapidly expanding United States Navy and passing merchant and passenger steamships. On July 4, 1898, United States Army Brigadier General Francis V. Greene of the 2nd Brigade, Philippine Expeditionary Force, of the Eighth Army Corps, stopped at Wake Island and raised the United States flag while en route to the Philippines on the steamship liner SS China. [24]

On January 17, 1899, under orders from President William McKinley, Commander Edward D. Taussig of USS Bennington landed on Wake and formally took possession of the island for the United States. After a 21-gun salute, the flag was raised and a brass plate was affixed to the flagstaff with the following inscription:

Although the proposed route for the submarine cable would have been shorter by 137 miles (220 km), the Midway and not Wake Island was chosen as the location for the telegraph cable station between Honolulu and Guam. Rear Admiral Royal Bird Bradford, chief of the U.S. Navy's Bureau of Equipment, stated before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce on January 17, 1902, that "Wake Island seems at times to be swept by the sea. It is only a few feet above the level of the ocean, and if a cable station were established there very expensive works would be required besides it has no harbor, while the Midway Islands are perfectly habitable and have a fair harbor for vessels of 18 feet (5 m) draught." [26]

On June 23, 1902, USAT Buford, commanded by Captain Alfred Croskey and bound for Manila, spotted a ship's boat on the beach as it passed closely by Wake Island. Soon thereafter the boat was launched by Japanese on the island and sailed out to meet the transport. The Japanese told Captain Croskey that they had been put on the island by a schooner from Yokohama in Japan and that they were gathering guano and drying fish. The captain suspected that they were also engaged in pearl hunting. The Japanese revealed that one of their parties needed medical attention and the captain determined from their descriptions of the symptoms that the illness was most likely beriberi. They informed Captain Croskey that they did not need any provisions or water and that they were expecting the Japanese schooner to return in a month or so. The Japanese declined an offer to be taken on the transport to Manila and were given some medical supplies for the sick man, some tobacco and a few incidentals. [27]

After USAT Buford reached Manila, Captain Croskey reported on the presence of Japanese at Wake Island. He also learned that USAT Sheridan had a similar encounter at Wake with the Japanese. The incident was brought to the attention of Assistant Secretary of the Navy Charles Darling, who at once informed the State Department and suggested that an explanation from the Japanese Government was needed. In August 1902, Japanese Minister Takahira Kogorō provided a diplomatic note stating that the Japanese Government had "no claim whatever to make on the sovereignty of the island, but that if any subjects are found on the island the Imperial Government expects that they should be properly protected as long as they are engaged in peaceful occupations." [28]

Wake Island was now clearly a territory of the United States, but during this period the island was only occasionally visited by passing American ships. One notable visit occurred in December 1906 when U.S. Army General John J. Pershing, later famous as the commander of the American Expeditionary Forces in western Europe during World War I, stopped at Wake on USAT Thomas and hoisted a 45-star U.S. flag that was improvised out of sail canvas. [29]

Feather collecting Edit

With limited fresh water resources, no harbor and no plans for development, Wake Island remained a remote uninhabited Pacific island in the early 20th century. It did, however, have a large seabird population that attracted Japanese feather collecting. The global demand for feathers and plumage was driven by the millinery industry and popular European fashion designs for hats, while other demand came from pillow and bedspread manufacturers. Japanese poachers set up camps to harvest feathers on many remote islands in the Central Pacific. The feather trade was primarily focused on Laysan albatross, black-footed albatross, masked booby, lesser frigatebird, greater frigatebird, sooty tern and other species of tern. On February 6, 1904, Rear Admiral Robley D. Evans arrived at Wake Island on USS Adams and observed Japanese collecting feathers and catching sharks for their fins. Abandoned feather poaching camps were seen by the crew of the submarine tender USS Beaver in 1922 and USS Tanager in 1923. Although feather collecting and plumage exploitation had been outlawed in the territorial United States, there is no record of any enforcement actions at Wake Island. [30]

Japanese castaways Edit

In January 1908, the Japanese ship Toyoshima Maru, en route from Tateyama, Japan, to the South Pacific, encountered a heavy storm that disabled the ship and swept the captain and five of the crew overboard. The 36 remaining crew members managed to make landfall on Wake Island, where they endured five months of great hardship, disease and starvation. In May 1908, the Brazilian Navy training ship Benjamin Constant, while on a voyage around the world, passed by the island and spotted a tattered red distress flag. Unable to land a boat, the crew executed a challenging three-day rescue operation using rope and cable to bring on board the 20 survivors and transport them to Yokohama. [31]

USS Beaver strategic survey Edit

In his 1921 book Sea-Power in the Pacific: A Study of the American-Japanese Naval Problem, Hector C. Bywater recommended establishing a well-defended fueling station at Wake Island to provide coal and oil for United States Navy ships engaged in future operations against Japan. [32] On June 19, 1922, the submarine tender USS Beaver landed an investigating party to determine the practicality and feasibility of establishing a naval fueling station on Wake Island. Lt. Cmdr. Sherwood Picking reported that from "a strategic point of view, Wake Island could not be better located, dividing as it does with Midway, the passage from Honolulu to Guam into almost exact thirds." He observed that the boat channel was choked with coral heads and that the lagoon was very shallow and not over 15 feet (5 m) in depth, and therefore Wake would not be able to serve as a base for surface vessels. Picking suggested clearing the channel to the lagoon for "loaded motor sailing launches" so that parties on shore could receive supplies from passing ships and he strongly recommended that Wake be used as a base for aircraft. Picking stated that "If the long heralded trans-Pacific flight ever takes place, Wake Island should certainly be occupied and used as an intermediate resting and fueling port." [33]

Tanager Expedition Edit

In 1923, a joint expedition by the then Bureau of the Biological Survey (in the U.S. Department of Agriculture), the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum and the United States Navy was organized to conduct a thorough biological reconnaissance of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, then administered by the Biological Survey Bureau as the Hawaiian Islands Bird Reservation. On February 1, 1923, Secretary of Agriculture Henry C. Wallace contacted Secretary of Navy Edwin Denby to request Navy participation and recommended expanding the expedition to Johnston, Midway and Wake, all islands not administered by the Department of Agriculture. On July 27, 1923, USS Tanager, a World War I minesweeper, brought the Tanager Expedition to Wake Island under the leadership of ornithologist Alexander Wetmore, and a tent camp was established on the eastern end of Wilkes. From July 27 to August 5, the expedition charted the atoll, made extensive zoological and botanical observations and gathered specimens for the Bishop Museum, while the naval vessel under the command of Lt. Cmdr. Samuel Wilder King conducted a sounding survey offshore. Other achievements at Wake included examinations of three abandoned Japanese feather poaching camps, scientific observations of the now extinct Wake Island rail and confirmation that Wake Island is an atoll, with a group comprising three islands with a central lagoon. Wetmore named the southwest island for Charles Wilkes, who had led the original pioneering United States Exploring Expedition to Wake in 1841. The northwest island was named for Titian Peale, the chief naturalist of that 1841 expedition. [34]

Pan American Airways and the U.S. Navy Edit

Juan Trippe, president of the world's then-largest airline, Pan American Airways (PAA), wanted to expand globally by offering passenger air service between the United States and China. To cross the Pacific Ocean his planes would need to island-hop, stopping at various points for refueling and maintenance. He first tried to plot the route on his globe but it showed only open sea between Midway and Guam. Next, he went to the New York Public Library to study 19th-century clipper ship logs and charts and he "discovered" a little-known coral atoll named Wake Island. To proceed with his plans at Wake and Midway, Trippe would need to be granted access to each island and approval to construct and operate facilities however, the islands were not under the jurisdiction of any specific U.S. government entity. [35] [36]

Meanwhile, U.S. Navy military planners and the State Department were increasingly alarmed by the Empire of Japan's expansionist attitude and growing belligerence in the Western Pacific. Following World War I, the Council of the League of Nations had granted the South Seas Mandate ("Nanyo") to Japan (which had joined the Allied Powers in the First World War) which included the already Japanese-held Micronesia islands north of the equator that were part of the former colony of German New Guinea of the German Empire these include the modern nation/states of Palau, Federated States of Micronesia, Northern Mariana Islands and Marshall Islands. In the 1920s and 1930s, Japan restricted access to its mandated territory and began to develop harbors and airfields throughout Micronesia in defiance of the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922, which prohibited both the United States and Japan from expanding military fortifications in the Pacific islands. Now with Trippe's planned Pan American Airways aviation route passing through Wake and Midway, the U.S. Navy and the State Department saw an opportunity to project American air power across the Pacific under the guise of a commercial aviation enterprise. On October 3, 1934, Trippe wrote to the Secretary of the Navy, requesting a five-year lease on Wake Island with an option for four renewals. Given the potential military value of PAA's base development, on November 13, Chief of Naval Operations Admiral William H. Standley ordered a survey of Wake by USS Nitro and on December 29 President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 6935, which placed Wake Island and also Johnston, Sand Island at Midway and Kingman Reef under the control of the Department of the Navy. In an attempt to disguise the Navy's military intentions, Rear Admiral Harry E. Yarnell then designated Wake Island as a bird sanctuary. [37]

USS Nitro arrived at Wake Island on March 8, 1935, and conducted a two-day ground, marine and aerial survey, providing the Navy with strategic observations and complete photographic coverage of the atoll. Four days later, on March 12, Secretary of the Navy Claude A. Swanson formally granted Pan American Airways permission to construct facilities at Wake Island. [38]

Pan American "Flying Clippers" base Edit

To construct bases in the Pacific, Pan American Airways (PAA) chartered the 6,700-ton freighter SS North Haven, which arrived at Wake Island on May 9, 1935, with construction workers and the necessary materials and equipment to start to build Pan American facilities and to clear the lagoon for a flying boat landing area. The atoll's encircling coral reef prevented the ship from entering and anchoring in the shallow lagoon itself. The only suitable location for ferrying supplies and workers ashore was at nearby Wilkes Island however, the chief engineer of the expedition, Charles R. Russell, determined that Wilkes was too low and at times flooded and that Peale Island was the best site for the Pan American facilities. To offload the ship, cargo was lightered (barged) from ship to shore, carried across Wilkes and then transferred to another barge and towed across the lagoon to Peale Island. By inspiration, someone had earlier loaded railroad track rails onto North Haven, so the men built a narrow-gauge railway to make it easier to haul the supplies across Wilkes to the lagoon. On June 12, North Haven departed for Guam, leaving behind various PAA technicians and a construction crew. [39]

Out in the middle of the lagoon, Bill Mullahey, a swimmer from Columbia University, was tasked with blasting hundreds of coral heads from a 1 mile (1,600 m) long, 300 yards (300 m) wide, 6 feet (2 m) deep landing area for the flying boats. [40]

On August 17, the first aircraft landing at Wake Island occurred when a PAA flying boat, on a survey flight of the route between Midway and Wake, landed in the lagoon. [41]

The second expedition of North Haven arrived at Wake Island on February 5, 1936, to complete the construction of the PAA facilities. A five-ton diesel locomotive for the Wilkes Island Railroad was offloaded and the railway track was extended to run from dock to dock. Across the lagoon on Peale workers assembled the Pan American Hotel, a prefabricated structure with 48 rooms and wide porches and verandas. The hotel consisted of two wings built out from a central lobby with each room having a bathroom with a hot-water shower. The PAA facilities staff included a group of Chamorro men from Guam who were employed as kitchen helpers, hotel service attendants and laborers. [42] [43] The village on Peale was nicknamed "PAAville" and was the first "permanent" human settlement on Wake. [44]

By October 1936, Pan American Airways was ready to transport passengers across the Pacific on its small fleet of three Martin M-130 "Flying Clippers". On October 11, the China Clipper landed at Wake on a press flight with ten journalists on board. A week later, on October 18, PAA President Juan Trippe and a group of VIP passengers arrived at Wake on the Philippine Clipper (NC14715). On October 25, the Hawaii Clipper (NC14714) landed at Wake with the first paying airline passengers ever to cross the Pacific. In 1937, Wake Island became a regular stop for PAA's international trans-Pacific passenger and airmail service, with two scheduled flights per week, one westbound from Midway and one eastbound from Guam. [45] [46]

Wake Island is credited with being one of the early successes of hydroponics, which enabled Pan American Airways to grow vegetables for its passengers, as it was very expensive to airlift in fresh vegetables and the island lacked natural soil. [47] Pan Am remained in operation up to the day of the first Japanese air raid in December 1941, forcing the U.S. into World War II. [48]

Military buildup Edit

On February 14, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8682 to create naval defense areas in the central Pacific territories. The proclamation established "Wake Island Naval Defensive Sea Area", which encompassed the territorial waters between the extreme high-water marks and the three-mile marine boundaries surrounding Wake. "Wake Island Naval Airspace Reservation" was also established to restrict access to the airspace over the naval defense sea area. Only U.S. government ships and aircraft were permitted to enter the naval defense areas at Wake Island unless authorized by the Secretary of the Navy. [49]

Just earlier, in January 1941, the United States Navy began construction of a military base on the atoll. On August 19, the first permanent military garrison, elements of the U.S. Marine Corps' First Marine Defense Battalion, [50] totaling 449 officers and men, were stationed on the island, commanded by Navy Cmdr. Winfield Scott Cunningham. [51] Also on the island were 68 U.S. Naval personnel and about 1,221 civilian workers from the American firm Morrison-Knudsen Corp. [52]

World War II Edit

Battle of Wake Island Edit

Historical population
YearPop. ±%
1941 1,738
1943 98−94.4%
1945 400+308.2%
1960 1,097+174.3%
1970 1,647+50.1%
1980 302−81.7%
1990 7−97.7%
2000 3−57.1%
2009 150+4900.0%
2010 188+25.3%
2015 94−50.0%
2017 100+6.4%

On December 8, 1941 (December 7 in Hawaii, the day of the attack on Pearl Harbor), at least 27 Japanese Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" medium bombers flown from bases on Kwajalein in the Marshall Islands attacked Wake Island, destroying eight of the 12 Grumman F4F Wildcat fighter aircraft belonging to United States Marine Corps Fighter Squadron 211 (VMF-211) on the ground. The Marine garrison's defensive emplacements were left intact by the raid, which primarily targeted the aircraft. [53]

The garrison – supplemented by civilian construction workers employed by Morrison-Knudsen Corp. – repelled several Japanese landing attempts. [54] An American journalist reported that after the initial Japanese amphibious assault was beaten back with heavy losses on December 11, the American commander was asked by his superiors if he needed anything. Popular legend has it that Major James Devereux sent back the message, "Send us more Japs!" – a reply that became famous. [55] [56] After the war, when Major Devereux learned that he had been credited with sending that message, he pointed out that he had not been the commander on Wake Island and denied sending the message. "As far as I know, it wasn't sent at all. None of us was that much of a damn fool. We already had more Japs than we could handle." [57] In reality, Commander Winfield S. Cunningham, USN was in charge of Wake Island, not Devereux. [58] Cunningham ordered that coded messages be sent during operations, and a junior officer had added "send us" and "more Japs" to the beginning and end of a message to confuse Japanese code breakers. This was put together at Pearl Harbor and passed on as part of the message. [59]

The U.S. Navy attempted to provide support from Hawaii but had suffered great losses at Pearl Harbor. The relief fleet they managed to organize was delayed by bad weather. The isolated U.S. garrison was overwhelmed by a reinforced and greatly superior Japanese invasion force on December 23. [60] American casualties numbered 52 military personnel (Navy and Marine) and approximately 70 civilians killed. Japanese losses exceeded 700 dead, with some estimates ranging as high as 1,000. Wake's defenders sank two Japanese fast transports (P32 and P33) and one submarine and shot down 24 Japanese aircraft. The relief fleet, en route, on hearing of the island's loss, turned back. [61] [62]

In the aftermath of the battle, most of the captured civilians and military personnel were sent to POW camps in Asia, though some of the civilian laborers were enslaved by the Japanese and tasked with improving the island's defenses. [63]

Japanese occupation and surrender Edit

The island's Japanese garrison was composed of the IJN 65th Guard Unit (2,000 men), Japan Navy Captain Shigematsu Sakaibara and the IJA units which became 13th Independent Mixed Regiment (1,939 men) under command of Col. Shigeji Chikamori. [64] Fearing an imminent invasion, the Japanese reinforced Wake Island with more formidable defenses. The American captives were ordered to build a series of bunkers and fortifications on Wake. The Japanese brought in an 8-inch (200 mm) naval gun which is often incorrectly [65] reported as having been captured in Singapore. The U.S. Navy established a submarine blockade instead of an amphibious invasion of Wake Island. The Japanese-occupied island (called Ōtorishima (大鳥島) or Big Bird Island by them for its birdlike shape) [66] was bombed several times by American aircraft one of these raids was the first mission for future United States President George H. W. Bush. [67]

After a successful American air raid on October 5, 1943, Sakaibara ordered the execution of all of the 98 captured Americans who remained on the island. They were taken to the northern end of the island, blindfolded and machine-gunned. [68] One prisoner escaped, carving the message "98 US PW 5-10-43" on a large coral rock near where the victims had been hastily buried in a mass grave. This unknown American was soon recaptured and beheaded. [69]

Since the 1943 air raids, the garrison had been almost cut off from supplies and was reduced to the point of starvation. While the islands' sooty tern colony had received some protection as a source of eggs, the Wake Island rail was hunted to extinction by the starving soldiers. Ultimately about three-quarters of the Japanese garrison perished, and the rest survived only by eating tern eggs, the Pacific rats introduced by prehistoric voyagers, and what scant amount of vegetables they could grow in makeshift gardens among the coral rubble. [70] [71]

On September 4, 1945, the Japanese garrison surrendered to a detachment of United States Marines under the command of Brigadier General Lawson H. M. Sanderson. [72] The garrison, having previously received news that Imperial Japan's defeat was imminent, exhumed the mass grave. The bones were moved to the U.S. cemetery that had been established on Peacock Point after the invasion. Wooden crosses were erected in preparation for the expected arrival of U.S. forces. During the initial interrogations, the Japanese claimed that the remaining 98 Americans on the island were mostly killed by an American bombing raid, though some escaped and fought to the death after being cornered on the beach at the north end of Wake Island. [73] Several Japanese officers in American custody committed suicide over the incident, leaving written statements that incriminated Sakaibara. [74] Sakaibara and his subordinate, lieutenant commander Tachibana, were later sentenced to death after conviction for this and other war crimes. Sakaibara was executed by hanging in Guam on June 18, 1947, while Tachibana's sentence was commuted to life in prison. [75] The remains of the murdered civilians were exhumed and reburied at Honolulu's National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific at section G, commonly known as Punchbowl Crater. [76]

Post-World War II military and commercial airfield Edit

With the end of hostilities with Japan and the increase in international air travel driven in part by wartime advances in aeronautics, Wake Island became a critical mid-Pacific base for the servicing and refueling of military and commercial aircraft. The United States Navy resumed control of the island, and in October 1945 400 Seabees from the 85th Naval Construction Battalion arrived at Wake to clear the island of the effects of the war and to build basic facilities for a Naval Air Base. The base was completed in March 1946 and on September 24, regular commercial passenger service was resumed by Pan American Airways (Pan Am). The era of the flying boats was nearly over, so Pan Am switched to longer-range, faster and more profitable airplanes that could land on Wake's new coral runway. Other airlines that established transpacific routes through Wake included British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC), Japan Airlines, Philippine Airlines and Transocean Airlines. Due to the substantial increase in the number of commercial flights, on July 1, 1947, the Navy transferred administration, operations and maintenance of the facilities at Wake to the Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA). In 1949, the CAA upgraded the runway by paving over the coral surface and extending its length to 7,000 feet. [77] [78]

Korean War Edit

In June 1950, the Korean War began with the United States leading United Nations forces against a North Korean invasion of South Korea. In July, the Korean Airlift was started and the Military Air Transport Service (MATS) used the airfield and facilities at Wake as a key mid-Pacific refueling stop for its mission of transporting men and supplies to the Korean front. By September, 120 military aircraft were landing at Wake per day. [79] On October 15, U.S. President Harry S. Truman and General MacArthur met at the Wake Island Conference to discuss progress and war strategy for the Korean Peninsula. They chose to meet at Wake Island because of its close proximity to Korea so that MacArthur would not have to be away from the troops in the field for long. [80]

Missile Impact Location System Edit

From 1958 through 1960 the United States installed the Missile Impact Location System (MILS) in the Navy managed Pacific Missile Range, later the Air Force managed Western Range, to localize the splash downs of test missile nose cones. MILS was developed and installed by the same entities that had completed the first phase of the Atlantic and U.S. West Coast SOSUS systems. A MILS installation, consisting of both a target array for precision location and a broad ocean area system for good positions outside the target area, was installed at Wake as part of the system supporting Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) tests. Other Pacific MILS shore terminals were at the Marine Corps Air Station Kaneohe Bay supporting Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM) tests with impact areas northeast of Hawaii and the other ICBM test support systems at Midway Island and Eniwetok. [81] [82] [83]

Tanker shipwreck and oil spill Edit

On September 6, 1967, Standard Oil of California's 18,000-ton tanker SS R.C. Stoner was driven onto the reef at Wake Island by a strong southwesterly wind after the ship failed to moor to the two buoys near the harbor entrance. An estimated six million gallons of refined fuel oil – including 5.7 million gallons of aviation fuel, 168,000 gallons of diesel oil and 138,600 gallons of bunker C fuel – spilled into the small boat harbor and along the southwestern coast of Wake Island to Peacock Point. Large numbers of fish were killed by the oil spill, and personnel from the FAA and crewmen from the ship cleared the area closest to the spill of dead fish. [84] [85]

The U.S. Navy salvage team Harbor Clearance Unit Two and Pacific Fleet Salvage Officer Cmdr. John B. Orem flew to Wake to assess the situation, and by September 13 the Navy tugs USS Mataco and USS Wandank, salvage ships USS Conserver and USS Grapple, tanker USS Noxubee, and USCGC Mallow, arrived from Honolulu, Guam and Subic Bay in the Philippines, to assist in the cleanup and removal of the vessel. At the boat harbor the salvage team pumped and skimmed oil, which they burned each evening in nearby pits. Recovery by the Navy salvage team of the R.C. Stoner and its remaining cargo, however, was hampered by strong winds and heavy seas. [86]

On September 16, Super Typhoon Sarah made landfall on Wake Island at peak intensity with winds up to 145-knots, causing widespread damage. The intensity of the storm had the beneficial effect of greatly accelerating the cleanup effort by clearing the harbor and scouring the coast. Oil did remain, however, embedded in the reef's flat crevices and impregnated in the coral. The storm also had broken the wrecked vessel into three sections and, although delayed by rough seas and harassment by blacktip reef sharks, the salvage team used explosives to flatten and sink the remaining portions of the ship that were still above water. [87] [88]

U.S. Air Force assumes control Edit

In the early 1970s, higher-efficiency jet aircraft with longer-range capabilities lessened the use of Wake Island Airfield as a refueling stop, and the number of commercial flights landing at Wake declined sharply. Pan Am had replaced many of its Boeing 707s with more efficient 747s, thus eliminating the need to continue weekly stops at Wake. Other airlines began to eliminate their scheduled flights into Wake. In June 1972 the last scheduled Pan Am passenger flight landed at Wake, and in July Pan Am's last cargo flight departed the island, marking the end of the heyday of Wake Island's commercial aviation history. During this same time period the U.S. military had transitioned to longer-range C-5A and C-141 aircraft, leaving the C-130 as the only aircraft that would continue to regularly use the island's airfield. The steady decrease in air traffic control activities at Wake Island was apparent and was expected to continue.

On June 24, 1972, responsibility for the civil administration of Wake Island was transferred from the FAA to the United States Air Force under an agreement between the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of the Air Force. In July, the FAA turned over administration of the island to the Military Airlift Command (MAC), although legal ownership stayed with the Department of the Interior, and the FAA continued to maintain the air navigation facilities and provide air traffic control services. On December 27, the Chief of Staff of the Air Force (CSAF) General John D. Ryan directed MAC to phase out en-route support activity at Wake Island effective June 30, 1973. On July 1, 1973, all FAA activities ended and the U.S. Air Force under Pacific Air Forces (PACAF), Detachment 4, 15th Air Base Wing assumed control of Wake Island. [89]

In 1973, Wake Island was selected as a launch site for the testing of defensive systems against intercontinental ballistic missiles under the U.S. Army's Project Have Mill. Air Force personnel on Wake and the Air Force Systems Command (AFSC) Space and Missile Systems Organization (SAMSO) provided support to the Army's Advanced Ballistic Missile Defense Agency (ABMDA). A missile launch complex was activated on Wake and, from February 13 to June 22, 1974, seven Athena H missiles were launched from the island to the Roi-Namur Test Range at Kwajalein Atoll. [90]

Vietnam War refugees and Operation New Life Edit

In the spring of 1975, the population of Wake Island consisted of 251 military, government and civilian contract personnel, whose primary mission was to maintain the airfield as a Mid-Pacific emergency runway. With the imminent fall of Saigon to North Vietnamese forces, President Gerald Ford ordered American forces to support Operation New Life, the evacuation of refugees from Vietnam. The original plans included the Philippines' Subic Bay and Guam as refugee processing centers, but due to the high number of Vietnamese seeking evacuation, Wake Island was selected as an additional location. [92]

In March 1975, Island Commander Major Bruce R. Hoon was contacted by Pacific Air Forces (PACAF) and ordered to prepare Wake for its new mission as a refugee processing center where Vietnamese evacuees could be medically screened, interviewed and transported to the United States or other resettlement countries. A 60-man civil engineering team was brought in to reopen boarded-up buildings and housing, two complete MASH units arrived to set up field hospitals and three Army field kitchens were deployed. A 60-man United States Air Force Security Police team, processing agents from the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service and various other administrative and support personnel were also on Wake. Potable water, food, medical supplies, clothing and other supplies were shipped in. [93]

On April 26, 1975, the first C-141 military transport aircraft carrying refugees arrived. The airlift to Wake continued at a rate of one C-141 every hour and 45 minutes, each aircraft with 283 refugees on board. At the peak of the mission, 8,700 Vietnamese refugees were on Wake. When the airlift ended on August 2, a total of about 15,000 refugees had been processed through Wake Island as part of Operation New Life. [94] [95]

Bikini Islanders resettlement Edit

On March 20, 1978, Undersecretary James A. Joseph of the U.S. Department of the Interior reported that radiation levels from Operation Crossroads and other atomic tests conducted in the 1940s and 1950s on Bikini Atoll were still too high and those island natives that returned to Bikini would once again have to be relocated. In September 1979 a delegation from the Bikini/Kili Council came to Wake Island to assess the island's potential as a possible resettlement site. The delegation also traveled to Hawaii (Molokai and Hilo), Palmyra Atoll and various atolls in the Marshall Islands including Mili, Knox, Jaluit, Ailinglaplap, Erikub and Likiep but the group agreed that they were only interested in resettlement on Wake Island due to the presence of the U.S. military and the island's proximity to Bikini Atoll. Unfortunately for the Bikini Islanders, the U.S. Department of Defense responded that "any such resettlement is out of the question." [96] [97] [98]

Commemorative and memorial visits Edit

In April 1981, a party of 19 Japanese, including 16 former Japanese soldiers who were at Wake during World War II, visited the island to pay respects for their war dead at the Japanese Shinto Shrine. [99]

In the early 1980s, the National Park Service conducted an evaluation of Wake Island to determine if the World War II (WWII) cultural resources remaining on Wake, Wilkes and Peale were of national historical significance. As a result of this survey, Wake Island was designated as a National Historic Landmark (NHL) on September 16, 1985, helping to preserve sites and artifacts on the atoll associated with WWII in the Pacific and the transpacific aviation era prior to the war. As a National Historic Landmark, Wake Island was also included in the National Register of Historic Places. [100]

On November 3 and 4, 1985, a group of 167 former American prisoners of war (POWs) visited Wake with their wives and children. This was the first such visit by a group of former Wake Island POWs and their families. [101]

On November 24, 1985, a Pan American Airlines (Pan Am) Boeing 747, renamed China Clipper II, came through Wake Island on a flight across the Pacific to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the inauguration of Pan American China Clipper Service to the Orient. Author James A. Michener and Lars Lindbergh, grandson of aviator Charles Lindbergh, were among the dignitaries on board the aircraft. [102]

Army missile tests Edit

Subsequently, the island has been used for strategic defense and operations during and after the Cold War, with Wake Island serving as a launch platform for military rockets involved in testing missile defense systems and atmospheric re-entry trials as part of the Ronald Reagan Ballistic Missile Defense Test Site. Wake's location allows for a safe launch and trajectory over the unpopulated ocean with open space for intercepts. [103]

In 1987, Wake Island was selected as a missile launch site for a Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program named Project Starlab/Starbird. In 1989, the U.S. Army Strategic Defense Command (USASDC) constructed two launch pads on Peacock Point, as well as nearby support facilities, for the eight-ton, 60 feet (20 m), multi-stage Starbird test missiles. The program involved using electro-optical and laser systems, mounted on the Starlab platform in the payload bay of an orbiting Space Shuttle, to acquire, track and target Starbird missiles launched from Cape Canaveral and Wake. After being impacted by mission scheduling delays caused by the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger, the program was canceled in late September 1990 to protect funding for another U.S. Army space-based missile defense program known as Brilliant Pebbles. Although no Starbird missiles were ever launched from Wake Island, the Starbird launch facilities at Wake were modified to support rocket launches for the Brilliant Pebbles program with the first launch occurring on January 29, 1992. On October 16, a 30 feet (10 m) Castor-Orbus rocket was destroyed by ground controllers seven minutes after its launch from Wake. The program was canceled in 1993. [104] [105]

Missile testing activities continued with the Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP) Test Program, another U.S. Army strategic defense project that included the launching of two Aerojet Super Chief HPB rockets from Wake Island. The first launch, on January 28, 1993, reached apogee at 240 miles (390 kilometers) and was a success. The second launch, on February 11, reached apogee at 1.2 miles (1.9 kilometers) and was deemed a failure. [106]

Due to the U.S. Army's continued use of the atoll for various missile testing programs, on October 1, 1994, the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC) assumed administrative command of Wake Island under a caretaker permit from the U.S. Air Force. The USASSDC had been operating on Wake since 1988 when construction of Starbird launch and support facilities was started. Now under U.S Army control, the island, which is located 690 miles (1,110 kilometers) north of Kwajalein Atoll, became a rocket launch site for the Kwajalein Missile Range known as the Wake Island Launch Center. [107]

In July 1995, various units of the U.S. military established a camp on Wake Island to provide housing, food, medical care and social activities for Chinese illegal immigrants as part of Operation Prompt Return (also known as Joint Task Force Prompt Return). The Chinese immigrants were discovered on July 3 on board the M/V Jung Sheng Number 8 when the 160-foot-long vessel was interdicted by the U.S. Coast Guard south of Hawaii. The Jung Sheng had left Canton, China en route to the United States on June 2 with 147 Chinese Illegal Immigrants, including 18 "enforcers", and 11 crew on board. On July 29, the Chinese were transported to Wake Island where they were cared for by U.S. military personnel and on August 7, they were safely repatriated to China by commercial air charter. From October 10 to November 21, 1996, military units assigned to Operation Marathon Pacific used facilities at Wake Island as a staging area for the repatriation of another group of more than 113 Chinese illegal immigrants who had been interdicted in the Atlantic Ocean near Bermuda aboard the human smuggling vessel, the Xing Da. [108] [109]

U.S. Air Force regains control Edit

On October 1, 2002, administrative control and support of Wake Island was transferred from the U.S. Army to the U.S. Air Force's 15th Wing, an aviation unit of Pacific Air Forces based at Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii. The 15th Wing had previously been in control of Wake from July 1, 1973 to September 30, 1994. Although the Air Force was once again in control, the Missile Defense Agency would continue to operate the Wake Island Launch Center and the U.S. Army's Ronald Reagan Ballistic Missile Defense Test Site would continue to maintain and operate the launch facilities and also provide instrumentation, communications, flight and ground safety, security, and other support. [110]

On January 6, 2009, President George W. Bush issued Executive Order 8836, establishing Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument to preserve the marine environments around Wake, Baker, Howland, and Jarvis Islands, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, and Palmyra Atoll. The proclamation assigned management of the nearby waters and submerged and emergent lands of the islands to the Department of the Interior and management of fishery-related activities in waters beyond 12 nautical miles from the islands' mean low water line to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). [111] On January 16, Secretary of the Interior Dirk Kempthorne issued Order Number 3284 which stated that the area at Wake Island assigned to the Department of Interior by Executive Order 8836 will be managed as a National Wildlife Refuge. Management of the emergent lands at Wake Island by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, however, will not begin until the existing management agreement between the Secretary of the Air Force and the Secretary of the Interior is terminated. [112] [113]

The 611th Air Support Group (ASG), a U.S. Air Force unit based at Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson in Anchorage, Alaska took over control of Wake Island from the 15th Wing On October 1, 2010. The 611th ASG was already providing support and management to various geographically remote Air Force sites within Alaska and the addition of Wake Island provided the unit with more opportunities for outdoor projects during the winter months when projects in Alaska are very limited. The 611th ASG, a unit of the 11th Air Force, was renamed the Pacific Air Forces (PACAF) Regional Support Center. [114]

On September 27, 2014, President Barack Obama issued Executive Order 9173 to expand the area of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument out to the full 200 nautical miles U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) boundary for each island. By this proclamation, the area of the monument at Wake Island was increased from 15,085 sq mi (39,069 km 2 ) to 167,336 sq mi (433,398 km 2 ). [115]

On November 1, 2015, a complex $230 million U.S. military missile defense system test event, called Campaign Fierce Sentry Flight Test Operational-02 Event 2 (FTO-02 E2), was conducted at Wake Island and the surrounding ocean areas. The test involved a Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system built by Lockheed Martin, two AN/TPY-2 radar systems built by Raytheon, Lockheed's Command, Control, Battle Management, and Communications system, and USS John Paul Jones guided missile destroyer with its AN/SPY-1 radar. The objective was to test the ability of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense and THAAD Weapon Systems to defeat a raid of three near-simultaneous air and missile targets, consisting of one medium-range ballistic missile, one short-range ballistic missile and one cruise missile target. During the test, a THAAD system on Wake Island detected and destroyed a short-range target simulating a short-range ballistic missile that was launched by a C-17 transport plane. At the same time, the THAAD system and the destroyer both launched missiles to intercept a medium-range ballistic missile, launched by a second C-17. [116] [117]

Wake Island has no permanent inhabitants and access is restricted. However, as of 2017, there are approximately 100 Air Force personnel and American and Thai contractor residents at any given time. [118]

On June 24, 1972, the United States Air Force assumed responsibility for the civil administration of Wake Island pursuant to an agreement between the Department of the Interior and the Department of the Air Force. [119]

The civil administration authority at Wake Island has been delegated by the Secretary of the Air Force to the General Counsel of the Air Force under U.S. federal law known as the Wake Island Code. The general counsel provides civil, legal and judicial authority and can appoint one or more judges to serve on the Wake Island Court and the Wake Island Court of Appeals. [120]

Certain authorities have been re-delegated by the general counsel to the Commander, Wake Island, a position currently held by Commander, Detachment 1, Pacific Air Forces Regional Support Center. The commander may issue permits or registrations, appoint peace officers, impose quarantines, issue traffic regulations, commission notaries public, direct evacuations and inspections and carry out other duties, powers, and functions as the agent of the general counsel on Wake. [121]

Since Wake Island is an active Air Force airfield, the commander is also the senior officer in charge of all activities on the island. [122]

Aviation Edit

Air transportation facilities at Wake are operated by the United States Air Force at Wake Island Airfield in support of trans-Pacific military operations, western Pacific military contingency operations and missile launch activities. The 9,850-foot-long (3,000-meter) runway on Wake is also available to provide services for military and commercial in-flight emergencies. Although there is only one flight scheduled every other week to transport passengers and cargo to Wake, approximately 600 aircraft per year use Wake Island Airfield. [123] [124]

Ports Edit

Although Wake Island is supplied by sea-going barges and ships, the island's only harbor between Wilkes and Wake is too narrow and shallow for sea-going vessels to enter. The Base Operations Support (BOS) contractor maintains three small landing barges for transferring material from ships moored offshore to the dockyard in the harbor. Off-load hydrants are also used to pump gasoline and JP-5 fuels to the storage tanks on Wilkes. The landing barges and recreational offshore sportfishing boats are docked in the marina. [125]

Roads Edit

Transportation on Wake Island is provided by contractor or government-owned vehicles. The primary road is a two-lane paved road extending the length of Wake Island to the causeway between Wake Island and Wilkes Island. The causeway was rehabilitated in 2003 and is capable of supporting heavy equipment. A bridge connecting Wake and Peale Islands burned down in December 2002. A combination of paved and coral gravel roads serves the marina area. Paved access to Wilkes Island ends at the petroleum tank farm, where a road constructed of crushed coral provides access to the western point of Wilkes Island. A portion of the road, near the unfinished WWII submarine channel, is flooded nearly every year by high seas. The launch sites are accessed from the main paved road on Wake Island by paved and coral roads. Generally, the road network is suitable for low-speed, light-duty use only. Wake Island's paved roadway network has been adequately maintained to move materials, services, and personnel from the airfield on the southern end to the personnel support area on the northern end. Modes of transportation include walking, bicycles, light utility carts, automobiles, vans and larger trucks and equipment. [125]


The Mars Society/Wikimedia Commons/(CC BY-SA 3.0)

Northern Canada is home to the largest uninhabited island in the world. Inuit families tried to settle the area in 1934 but the cold and wind were unbearable, often destroying buildings and boats. A Mountie outpost also was established but ultimately abandoned because the ice made it too difficult to patrol. Despite not being permanently settled, researchers and scientists have stayed on Devon Island because the isle’s environment is actually a good simulator for life on Mars. NASA has used the area’s barren terrain, freezing temperatures, isolation and remoteness to train crew members and test equipment such as rovers.


How Not to Display the American Flag

The flag and its likeness should be treated with respect. Its image should not be cheapened or tarnished by improper use.

The flag should not be dipped to any person or thing, including government officials—even the President.

The flag should never be displayed with the union (stars) down, unless as a signal of dire distress.

The flag should never touch anything beneath it, such as the ground, the floor, water, or merchandise.

The flag should never be carried flat or horizontally, but always aloft and free.

The flag should never be fastened, displayed, used, or stored so that it might be easily torn, soiled, or damaged in any way.

The flag should never be used as covering for a ceiling.

The flag should never have anything placed on it.

The flag should never be used for any advertising purpose, nor embroidered on cushions or handkerchiefs, printed on paper napkins or boxes, nor used as any portion of a costume.


Vietnamese Boats Set on Fire for Illegal Fishing in Palau Territory - Recipes

Updated 7 January 2015.

There’s been a lot of talk lately about ‘What happens if the krill fishery suddenly grows out of control?’ What’s to stop a bunch of boats tooling up and charging down to the Antarctic and catching all of the krill?

People have been warning of a massive increase in the krill fishery since the 1990s and it still hasn’t happened for two very good reasons. Over the course of this blog, I want to explain the legal and scientific reasons why it won’t happen and also the economic reasons why this idea of krill suddenly getting huge fishing pressure is simply not plausible.

Why can’t krill fishing in the Southern Ocean expand?

The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, normally known as CCAMLR (‘Cam-Lar’) was set up in 1982 precisely to forestall the unregulated expansion of any fishery – for krill or fish – in the Southern Ocean. It is a legally-binding international convention between 25 countries to ensure the conservation of the Antarctic’s marine ecosystems. It counts amongst its members most of the large distant water fishing countries and almost all Antarctic Treaty parties, including all those fishing for krill – Chile, China, Japan, Korea and Norway. The Commission doesn’t prevent fishing, provided it is carried out in a sustainable way. However, the central objective of the Convention is conservation whilst allowing rational use and it requires that the effects of fishing at other points in the ecosystem are taken into account and minimised.

Very low catch limits protecting seals and penguins

At present, there’s a catch limit of 620,000 tonnes for krill in the area (Area 48) where fishing currently occurs, which – even if it was all taken – would only be around 1% of the total estimated biomass. Now that’s pretty small and sustainable. At present, the countries operating there are catching about a third of that so the total catch now is around a third of 1% of the total biomass. At its highest level, in the 1980s, the total catch only reached 500,000t.

CCAMLR could set a higher catch limit, above 620,000t but only if the CCAMLR parties agree to subdivide the catch between very small areas close to the coast and larger areas away from the coast, and only up to a total of 5.6 million tonnes – less than 10% of the 60.3 million tonnes of krill in the south Atlantic, leaving most of the krill for predators such as fish, birds and mammals to take.

The reason for this proposed subdivision is to limit the catch that can be taken close to penguin and seal breeding colonies. Even within the current 620,000t limit, the extent to which catch could be concentrated in one area is restricted because individual limits apply in each of 4 subareas – the South Shetland Islands, the South Orkney Islands, the South Georgia Island and the South Sandwich Islands. Under any subdivision associated with an increase in the catch limit beyond 620,000t, the majority of the catch would have to be caught further out at sea, away from predator colonies, where krill swarms are much less dense, and because of this, in practice it would be uneconomic for any vessel to fish in these open ocean areas. So it is likely that the catch limit will remain at 620,000t for some time. Bear in mind, Area 48 is nearly three times the size of the EU. Catching krill in the open ocean is simply not economically viable, because they are too widely spaced in the open seas. This is the reality of why krill fishing is likely to be restricted to 620,000 tonnes, 1% of the biomass, for the foreseeable future.

CCAMLR closely regulates the catch of krill, using a combination of satellite monitoring and on-board observers. Intention to enter the fishery must be notified to the Commission 6 months in advance of the season. If the catch nears a regional limit the fishery will be closed. CCAMLR is acknowledged to be amongst the best international management systems in the world. An expansion of the fishery simply could not happen without it being closely controlled by CCAMLR within the scientifically calculated catch limits.

Practical problems with krill fishing

People sometimes ask me, what happens if a country or a company decides to send boats there illegally? Well, there are also some very practical and economic reasons why illegal krill fishing won’t suddenly take off. Firstly, getting a boat to the Antarctic is incredibly expensive. You need to have a good business plan to do it. After all, the krill fishery has been in action for decades. The largest catches were taken in the 1980s, 400,000t to 500,000t per year, mostly by the old USSR where fishing economics were very different from today. Since then, the catch has risen only very gradually from 100,000 t to just over 200,000 per year. If it was going to turn into a gold rush, it would have done so a long time ago.

Most illegal fishing is conducted on small catches of high value fish where the economics are very strong – tuna, for instance. IUU fishing on bulk catches such as krill is not unheard of, but most unlikely. Krill are incredibly difficult to catch intact: they are very delicate, and there is a very rapid-onset self-digestion process that starts as soon as they die. If you leave them in a pile on the deck, they will decompose within a few minutes.

So, as you can see, it isn’t just a matter of fitting new nets. To think that a whole fleet of ships could somehow re-tool and sail down there and catch lots of krill, is simply not plausible. The legal measures put in place by all of the CCAMLR convention countries and the sheer practicalities of making it happen, mean that krill is in very safe hands.

David Agnew

Dr. David Agnew was the Standards Director for the MSC until March 2018.

Prior to joining the MSC, Dr Agnew was the Fisheries Director of the fisheries consultancy MRAG Ltd. He also worked for the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), where he served for 15 years as Principal Scientific Advisor to the UK Government. In this role, he conducted research and advised on management of the South Georgia marine ecosystem and Antarctic fisheries. Dr Agnew is an Honorary Senior Research Fellow in Fisheries and Population Biology at Imperial College London.


Drug trafficking producers

Even people behind the scenes on Deadliest Catch are magnets for trouble. Production manager Matthew Schneider was charged in April 2010 for selling and using cocaine, according to Alaska Dispatch News. Schneider's illicit activities were discovered after he allegedly sold about $300 worth of the stuff to an undercover officer — and used some of it in front of the officer as well. Oops! He also revealed that some other show employees were involved in a drug-trafficking affair, which resulted in the arrests of 18 people.


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He leads one of the world's smallest nations, but Surangel Whipps says Palau will not be bullied by anyone into deciding its future -- least of all by China.

Whipps, 52, became Palau's president last year after defeating an opponent who favoured closer ties with Beijing.

The Pacific nation of around 21,000 people is one of just 15 countries that still recognise Taiwan over China, something Whipps is adamant will not change under his watch despite Beijing's pressure campaign.

"If we were the last man standing we should be because Taiwan has been with us from the beginning," he told AFP via video call this week after returning from a trip to Taipei, where the two allies set up a coronavirus travel bubble for tourists.

Authoritarian China claims democratic, self-ruled Taiwan as its own territory and has vowed to one day seize it, by force if needed.

Beijing has whittled down Taiwan's remaining diplomatic allies using a mixture of carrots and sticks.

In 2019, it had two successes in the Pacific, persuading the Solomons and Kiribati to switch sides.

Only Palau, the Marshall Islands, Nauru and Tuvalu remain.

Whipps has emerged as the most vocally China-sceptical leader in the Pacific, something he says is forged from both Beijing's more aggressive stance under President Xi Jinping, and his own interactions with Chinese officials.

"I've had meetings with them and the first thing they said to me before, on a phone call, was 'What you're doing is illegal, recognising Taiwan is illegal. You need to stop it'," he recalled.

"You know, that's the tone they use," he added. "We shouldn't be told we can't be friends with so and so."

Whipps said he would often receive calls on his mobile from Chinese officials in the run-up to last year's elections.

"It would ring for like 16 times," he said. "After the elections, I have not taken their calls."

Asked for comment on Wednesday, Chinese foreign ministry spokesman Zhao Lijian said Beijing was "resolutely opposed" to Palau's diplomatic alliance with Taiwan.

Beijing has largely opted for the diplomatic stick when it comes to Palau recently.

Located around 900 kilometres (600 miles) east of the Philippines, Palau saw explosive growth in the number of Chinese tourists in the early half of the last decade.

But in 2017, China suddenly banned package tours, a common move to apply economic stress.

That decision, Whipps believes, backfired because it heightened Palauan awareness of Chinese pressure.

"That's just an example of how it's kind of bait," he said, summarising the Chinese position as: "You do this for me, then we expect this and this."

That scepticism is music to Washington's ears as it tries to shore up alliances in the Pacific to counter Beijing's growing regional clout.

Palau was one of a group of Pacific islands administered by the United States in the aftermath of World War II.

It became independent in 1994 but maintains close links with Washington.

Like other nearby Pacific nations, it has a 50-year defence agreement with the United States known as the Compact of Free Association (COFA).

US forces are under Japanese pressure to draw down their massive bases in Okinawa and are looking to diversify across the Pacific.

Last year, then-defense secretary Mark Esper became the first Pentagon chief to visit Palau.

Whipps says he is keen to see more US military bases, something he hopes will make his nation less reliant on tourism.

"I think there's an opportunity for everybody to gain from this," he said.

A key WWII battlefield, Palau forms part of the "second island chain" that US military strategists see as key obstacles to China dominating the Pacific.

"The Japanese back then saw the strategic importance, and I think it still remains today," Whipps said.

While Whipps has spent most of his life in Palau, he was born in Baltimore, studied in the United States and speaks with an American-tinged accent.

He renounced US citizenship to become a Palau senator.

But he remains fervently pro-US, and said Palau -- which has recorded zero coronavirus cases -- was on track to have all adults inoculated by May thanks to vaccines supplied by Washington under COFA.

He also described Taiwan, which began diplomatic relations with Palau in 1999, as more than just an ally.

The island's indigenous population are Austronesians and it was their forefathers who spread out across the Pacific tens of thousands of years ago.

"There's a shared culture and history," Whipps said.

Beijing's push to keep Taiwan isolated, especially during the coronavirus pandemic, has only heightened international sympathy for Taipei, he argued.

"Taiwan is a free country," Whipps said. "They're a democracy and that should be respected."

"As diplomatic allies, you can't just throw that out the door."


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USC Dornsife Scientific Diving: The International Policy Rationale for the Military Buildup on Guam and Some Environmental Drivers

[At this writing, U.S. and Philippine forces are concluding their latest joint military exercise, a mock amphibious landing on Palawan Island. The allies claim there is no direct link between their maneuvers and an incident earlier this month where Chinese military ships drove off Philippine coast guard vessels that were attempting to seize Chinese fishing boats in Philippine-claimed waters. This also coincides with Palau’s release of 25 Chinese fishermen arrested in an earlier incident—one Chinese vessel was destroyed, and one fisherman killed—on the charge of illegal fishing in Palauan waters. And it resembles several other recent Sino-Philippine and Sino-Vietnamese confrontations, including one last year where Chinese fishing boats were driven away by an armed Vietnamese oil-prospecting vessel. Several days ago the U.S. and Japan finally agreed that 9,000 Marines will leave Okinawa, and 5,000 of these will relocate to Guam. These recent events provide the immediate international relations context for the USC Dornsife Scientific Diving students three weeks before they travel to Micronesia.]

Si vis pacem, para bellum. “If you want peace, prepare for war.” This classical dictum—that the best way to deter conflict is to be strong enough to win it—reflects the strategies of the main Western Pacific powers engaged in military build-ups whose collective impact prompts an equally classical rejoinder: Si vis pacem, para pactum. “If you want peace, work for agreement,” since the alternative is arms racing that heightens tensions and risk while leaving everyone in the same relative position, only bearing major economic, social, ecological, and other costs. The U.S. territory of Guam is a prime exhibit of these often-ignored costs, an island jewel once again in the military and environmental crosshairs.

From the U.S. perspective, a longstanding regional balance is being upset by two principal threats: the nuclear-weapon and ballistic-missile programs of an unremittingly hostile North Korea and the seemingly relentless rise of China and its dramatic military build-up. The former is certainly diplomatically vexing, but to some extent a more straightforward challenge since it is primarily military (though scenarios of North Korea lashing out, or collapsing in, are anything but simple) and neighboring states largely agree on the strategy, if not tactics, of countering it. The latter challenge, China’s growing power and assertiveness, is in both its nature and implications considerably more complex. For over a decade, China-watchers have been debating the implications of Beijing’s rise yet remain as far as ever from consensus. Must China’s power be resolutely balanced, its military capabilities directly countered, if not to invite aggression? Or should the response be more measured so as not to provoke an insecure Chinese leadership and instead focus on the moderating influence of expanded political, economic, and cultural intercourse?

The U.S., while continuing to emphasize political and trade agreements, has launched a major effort—a “strategic pivot” toward Asia—to bolster its considerable military capabilities in the region. China’s growing air and naval forces, and especially the increasing number, range, and accuracy of its missile force, are being countered by multiple means: improved weapons systems, increased cooperation and training with regional allies, and new or expanded regional deployments and basing. To see why this is so much more complex than the Korean threat—which mainly concerns Northeast Asia—one must consider the geographical complexity of the Western Pacific-Southeast Asia. For it is not only the multifaceted nature of a rising China’s political, economic, and military challenge to the region. It is the geographic complexity of that region itself—the South China Sea and its many surrounding states, their conflicting territorial claims, its resource wealth, and its critical importance to not only Asian but global commerce.

In American (and Philippine, Vietnamese, Malaysian, et al.) eyes, the crux of the problem is China’s claim to “undisputed sovereignty” over nearly the entire South China Sea basin—including the Spratly and Paracel Islands, as well as the waters above perhaps 200 billion barrels of oil and 900 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. But that sovereignty is in fact vigorously disputed, which has led to some serious military clashes (especially with Vietnam) as well as multiple smaller confrontations (collisions at sea, threats to oil prospecting vessels, seizure of commercial shipping, etc.) with the Philippines, Indonesia, and others. What no one disputes is the South China Sea’s vital economic importance. Across its waters and through narrow passages such as the Straits of Malacca annually pass fully half of the world’s merchant tonnage, some $ 5 trillion in goods. Japan, Taiwan, South Korea and China rely on tankers traversing the Sea for between 60 and 80 percent of their energy imports.

From Beijing’s perspective, their claim to the lion’s share of the South China Sea is historically justified and in any case “outside powers” such as the U.S. have no place interfering in disputes that they prefer to settle bilaterally. But the smaller regional states cannot stand up to Beijing’s power alone, which is why they have turned to the U.S. for support, worried about unchecked Chinese “bullying” as Washington’s focus for the past decade has been on distant conflicts in the Middle East. Hence the “strategic pivot” or return to the U.S.’ post-WWII role as guarantor of regional security which—to Chinese eyes—looks like renewed “neo-imperial” meddling in what they consider “their” sea, much as the U.S. has traditionally regarded the Caribbean as “its” sea. Indeed, given its strategic importance, resource wealth, and political and environmental fragility, the South China Sea combines the most volatile aspects of the Caribbean and Caspian Seas.

To keep the sea-lanes open, check China’s advance, and preserve its own influence, the U.S. is expanding its already considerable presence and ”power projection” capabilities in the Western Pacific. Large contingents of troops in Japan (30,000) and South Korea (28,000) will be buttressed by new facilities such as a naval base in Darwin, Australia, that will add another 2,500 U.S. marines to the nearly 22,000 already stationed in the Pacific (including Hawaii). The U.S. Navy, adding the new and unproven Littoral Combat Ships to their fleet of submarines, destroyers, and aircraft carriers, will now find new (or expanded) welcome in the harbors of Singapore and the Philippines. And the U.S. Air Force’s increasing numbers of regionally based fighter, bomber, and surveillance planes are joined by new Navy aircraft such as the anti-submarine warfare Poseidon P8-A and a naval version of the Global Hawk drone.

Part of the concern driving this buildup is China’s increasingly capable navy, now numbering 65 frigates, 62 submarines, 13 destroyers, with a modern aircraft carrier under construction. The Chinese air force has grown apace, but perhaps most worrisome are the increasing numbers and sophistication of Beijing’s missile arsenal. Taiwan has long been concerned about the hundreds of Chinese missiles aimed in their direction, mostly variants of the inaccurate (but deadly) Soviet-era SCUD. But newer missiles such as the Dong Feng 16 (DF-16) feature increased accuracy and range, while the DF-21 poses a new threat conveyed in the sobriquet awarded it by the U.S. Navy—the “aircraft carrier killer.” Combined with the launch of many new low earth-orbit surveillance and targeting satellites, China’s long-range anti-ship and anti-ground missile capabilities now challenge U.S. superiority in the air and at sea. For the first time since WWII, America’s ability to control the skies unhindered and project power rapidly will be at issue with these growing threats to air-base and carrier-group survivability.

It is against this background that Guam figures so prominently. The U.S. Navy secured Guam as a territory of the United States in June 1898, when an arriving warship brought the news to the Spanish Governor of both the outbreak of the Spanish-American war and his instantaneous if bloodless defeat. Over the next four decades the Navy continually made plans to transform Guam into a key base in the western Pacific, but funding from Congress proved elusive. In the run up to Japanese aggression against the United States, the Navy agonized over the vulnerability of marines and sailors on Guam but made few actual preparations. In the hours following Pearl Harbor vastly superior Imperial Japanese forces on Saipan (the Northern Marianas Islands having been sold to Germany by Spain in 1899 and then seized by Japan at the outbreak of WWI) rapidly conquered Guam.

Two-and-a-half years of brutal occupation followed until U.S. forces blasted their way back onto Guam and the northern Marianas as well. Guam, Saipan, and Tinian became the airbases for the mass B-29 strikes on the Japanese mainland as well as two atomic bomb missions. WWII was won, Guam was devastated then rebuilt, and the U.S. belatedly granted the native Chamorros of Guam citizenship in 1950. The Northern Marianas eventually become a U.S. Commonwealth with their own constitution, but Guam persists, in the words of the United Nations, as a “non-decolonized territory”, along with two other U.S. territories (American Samoa and the U.S. Virgin Islands), the Falkland Islands, Pitcairn Island, Gibraltar, and seven or eight other vestiges of the age of empires.

The strategic value of Guam has always included prominently one of the finest deep-water ports in the Western Pacific. The Navy substantially improved Apra Harbor around the end of WWII, and it is already the base for forward deployment of three Los Angeles class nuclear attack submarines, a submarine tender, various naval air units and substantial munitions and communications assets. The value of Guam for advanced deployment of attack submarines was laid out in a 2003 Congressional Budget Office Report. Because of the past boom-bust cycle of commissionings, attack submarines built in the 1980s and 1990s are facing retirement over the next decade, and completions of their Virginia-class replacements, beginning in 2003, are not keeping up with need. Since a typical deployment is few months, patrol time in the South China Sea or off of Korea is severely diminished by transiting from San Diego or even Pearl Harbor. Furthermore, the reactors of the newer class are designed for the expected total lifetime of the vessel, and burning through the reactor on transiting versus patrol is inefficient use of very expensive assets. Forward deployment of additional submarines to Guam would seem to be inevitable.

Similar logic argues for advanced deployment of U.S. Navy aircraft carriers, all of which are also nuclear powered. For sometime the Navy has operated one carrier out of Yokohama Japan, and has additionally experimented with transient berthing of a second carrier at a munitions wharf in the outer part of Apra Harbor. In what could be a transition to a second advanced-deployed carrier in the Western Pacific, the Navy wants to dredge 71 acres of coral reef nearer the inner harbor to more favorably support berthing a carrier on Guam on a part-time basis without interference with munitions ships. It is possible that other near-by reefs such as Western Shoals might be damaged by sediment or debris from the proposed dredging operation.

Furthermore, DoD is looking to Guam to solve a long-standing diplomatic problem with Japan. U.S. forces occupied Okinawa in the closing months of WWII and have never left. Several PR disasters including rapes of children by US Marines coupled with sensitivity over land use and a never-ending foreign military presence require at least some U.S. forces be moved out of Okinawa and perhaps a base closure. Already some Marines are to be transferred to Australia, but a controversial plan to relocate many of them to Guam seems to be going forward but with only about 5,000 uniformed personnel, just over half the original plan.

The value of 5,000 Marines and an increased naval presence on Guam as preparation for or deterrence against a full-scale, intense land war in Asia should be measured against the magnitude of the assumed threat. Three scenarios come to mind as examples: a second Korean war, a military conquest (forced reunification) of Taiwan by China, and resource competition in the South China Sea resulting in military conflict between a number of nations, including China. Our best model for such a conflict is the 1950-1953 Korean War (which technically never ended as it was resolved by an Armistice but not a Peace Treaty). Ultimately the U.S., South Korea and allied nations committed nearly one million combatants North Korea committed a quarter million, and China nearly one million (the Soviet Union also provided aircraft and pilots for combat missions). U.S. and allied forces attained air superiority if not air supremacy after a few months, and neither North Korea nor China had nuclear weapons or much in the way of a navy, yet the U.S. alone suffered 130,000 killed, wounded or missing. An intense conflict in the Western Pacific a decade or two from now would feature a Chinese People’s Liberation Army Navy with entirely competent blue water and littoral capabilities, with air support from both carriers and airfields on their own shores. If U.S. ground troops became engaged in combat on the Asian mainland they would potentially face the largest standing army in the world.

Thus, while we agree that Guam is indeed the tip of the spear, the only U.S. soil suitable for a military base in the Western Pacific, the addition of a few thousand Marines, a few submarines and eventually one aircraft carrier is grossly inadequate to the threats that are invoked to justify the buildup in the first place. In that case, the environmental, social, cultural and simply economic costs of the buildup, which might look acceptable on the basis of geography alone (e.g., Figure 1) should be re-evaluated if the magnitude of the buildup is not likely to contribute to any of the putative strategic outcomes. One document that should be of enormous value to lawmakers as well as policy experts is the DoD Master Plan for the Pacific realignment of forces. This document is long overdue and DoD foot-dragging on its release has cost support in the U.S. Senate. DoD is apparently seeking an independent study of U.S. security interests, force posture and deployment plans in East Asia and the Pacific. Release of the Master Plan and as well as a comprehensive and independent review of military planning in the region is urgently needed to protect U.S. strategic interests and provide for an accurate balancing of strategic interests with economic, social and environmental costs.

Traditional security thinking largely neglects the latter. Even as some academic and policy experts have come to embrace non-traditional approaches—e.g., human security, economic or environmental security—governments still overwhelmingly emphasize military security. It’s time that we understood how closely these various approaches, and their respective concerns, are connected. Consider Chinese incursions into the waters claimed by neighboring states, sometimes by military ships but as often oil-exploration or fishing vessels. China is basically serving notice, asserting an offensive territorial claim to the entire China Sea basin—right? Well, consider the defensive argument of the RAND Corporation’s Scott Harold: “Fishing stocks in [China’s] coastal waters have been depleted, which is why you’re seeing Chinese fishermen ranging farther afield into waters claimed by South Korea, Japan, and the Philippines.” As China struggles to feed some 1.3 billion mouths, the nearby waters of the East China Sea have been severely depleted and even more severely degraded by a variety of pollutants: inorganic nitrogen and phosphates, oil hydrocarbons, sewage and other organic matter, and heavy metals -- in short, the usual agricultural and industrial wastes.

To a considerable extent, then, China’s military-territorial assertion is also motivated by economic necessity born of environmental degradation, which in turn provokes a military response in locales as distant as Guam that are themselves threatened by environmental degradation as a consequence. What better illustration could there be of the growing interdependence among military, economic, and environmental security? Until this interdependence is taken seriously by policy-makers on all sides, the old strategic instability caused by action-reaction arms racing will only be compounded by new economic and environmental instability of perhaps even graver long-term consequence.

About the Authors:

Robert English is Deputy Director of the School of International Relations at Dornsife College, University of Southern California. Educated at Berkeley and Princeton, he is a specialist in Russian politics and post-Soviet international relations. He previously taught at Johns Hopkins University (School of Advanced International Studies) and also worked as a policy analyst in the Office of the Secretary of Defense (1982-1986) and the Committee for National Security (1986-1987).

Jim Haw is Director of the Environmental Studies Program at Dornsife College, University of Southern California and Irani Professor of Chemistry. He is co-instructor of the Guam and Palau Program, which for the third consecutive year will be taking a group of scientific diving students to Micronesia to study a complex set of problems including the interplay between a military build-up and ecosystem management.

Editor’s note: Scientific Research Diving at USC Dornsife is offered as part of an experiential summer program offered to undergraduate students of the USC Dana and David Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences. This course takes place on location at the USC Wrigley Marine Science Center on Catalina Island and throughout Micronesia. Students investigate important environmental issues such as ecologically sustainable development, fisheries management, protected-area planning and assessment, and human health issues. During the course of the program, the student team will dive and collect data to support conservation and management strategies to protect the fragile coral reefs of Guam and Palau in Micronesia.

Instructors for the course include Jim Haw, Director of the Environmental Studies Program in USC Dornsife, Environmental Studies Lecturer Dave Ginsburg, SCUBA instructor and volunteer in the USC Scientific Diving Program Tom Carr and USC Dive Safety Officer Gerry Smith of the USC Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies